L1 What is Science?

Strategies employed (including classroom differentiation)

1.Connect (Hook and Hold) (5 mins)

+ Students are introduced to the teacher and the teacher to the various teams formed for the ISS. Should there be changes, teacher to update in the “Googleform” passed over from IRS.
+ Ask students to create a blog for ISS with the naming format as:
X is your class
-y is your group alphabet assigned 
and create tabs with the following headings as shown in the sample posted here: 

2.Acquire and Make meaning (Receive Knowledge and skills, and understanding learning outcomes) (40 mins)

+ Get students to respond to the question – what is science and the scientific method?
+ Instead of telling the students, ask them to search the internet and present their cases about what is the scientific method.
+ A good example is this website on the overview of the scientific method: http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_scientific_method.shtml#overviewofthescientificmethod
+ Students can post their research in the blog created.

3.Transfer (Formative checks, reflections, etc.) (5 mins)

+ Remind student to answer the key question – “What is the Scientific Method?” in 20 words and a diagram. 

There are 6 types of Science research. Look through the list below and decide what kind of science research interests you.


(1) Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research
One research method in particular is usually singled out by introductory science texts. It is known as the Scientific method. Steps in this method are
(a) State a hypothesis
(b) Design and experimental procedure to test the hypothesis
(c)  Construct any necessary apparatus
(d) Perform the experiments
(e) Analyze the data from the experiment to determine how likely it is the hypothesis can be disproved
(f)  Refine or correct the hypothesis and continue if necessary

(2) Measure a value: Experimental research (I)
(a) Identify a well-defined quantity
(b) Design a procedure to measure it
(c)  Construct any necessary apparatus
(d) Perform the experiments
(e) Analyse and report on the accuracy of the results

(3) Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)
(a) Observe a phenomenon and develop testable questions
(b) Identify control variables and response functions
(c)  Design an experimental procedure to vary the control variable, measure the response variables, and keep other factors constant
(d) Construct any necessary apparatus
(e) Perform the experiments
(f)  Analyse the relation between control variables and response variables, and characterize the relation mathematically

(4) Construct a model: Theoretical sciences and applied mathematics
(a) Choose a relationship discovered through experimental investigation
(b) Construct mental pictures to explain the relationship, and develop hypotheses about origins of the phenomenon
(c)  Identify basic mathematical equations from which the relation might result
(d) Using analytical or numerical techniques, determine whether the experimental relationship results from the basic mathematical equations
(e) If incorrect, find a new mathematical starting point
(f)  If correct, predict new relationships to be found in future experiments

(5) Observational and exploratory research
(a) Create and instrument or method for making observations that have not been made before
(b) Carry out observations, recording as much detail as possible, searching for unexpected objects or relationships
(c)  Present results and stimulate further research

(6) Improve a product or process: Industrial and applied research 
(a) Identify market need for product
(b) Design product with the potential to meet the need
(c) Build prototype products
(d) Determine whether products function as desired
(e) Optimise products with respect to cost, speed, environmental consequences, and other factors that affect profit
(f) Bring product to market and continue 

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